Book your visit now Contact Us by Messenger phone Call

Angiology and Vascular Surgery

Angiology and vascular surgery is a branch of medicine that provides prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Angiology, as a medical speciality, examines the pathologies of blood and lymphatic vessels, while vascular surgery includes the procedures necessary to treat these diseases.

What do angiology and vascular surgery study?

As mentioned above, this specialization focuses on the morphology, function and diseases of the circulatory systems. The field of study of angiology and vascular surgery includes veins, arteries, and lymphatic vessels, but does not include the feeding arteries of the heart or brain. As a rule, three clearly defined subspecialties are distinguished:


  • Arterial System: Focuses on treating the arteries that are responsible for supplying oxygen and nutrients to all the body's organs. Age, high blood pressure, diabetes, and tobacco use are classic risk factors for aneurysms or peripheral artery disease. An aneurysm is an enlargement of a segment of a blood vessel. As a rule, they are found in the aorta and trunk arteries and are characterized by the risk of rupture of the artery, which can lead to serious life-threatening complications for the patient. Peripheral arterial disease is characterized by narrowing or occlusion of the arteries, which leads to impaired blood circulation. In the case of damage to the arteries of the lower extremities, symptoms may manifest as pain when walking (transient lameness), constant pain even when lying down, and the appearance of ulcers and necrotic areas on the feet. Pathologies of the arterial system play a very important role in the treatment, follow-up and prevention of diabetic patients with blood circulation problems in the legs. Diabetic ankle syndrome requires special care that can only be provided by the Department of Vascular Surgery.

  • Venous system: the most common diseases are varicose veins, spider veins or thrombosis. Surgery is also performed to treat venous compression syndromes of the hip, such as May-Turner syndrome and Nutcracker syndrome.

  • Lymphatic System: Provides treatment for the lymphatic system and related diseases such as e.g. lymphedema.

For which patients is the treatment provided?

  • This direction of medicine is intended for patients of all ages, as venous and lymphatic pathologies can occur at any age. However, arterial diseases are more common in older people. Smokers, and patients with diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia are at high risk of vascular disease.

  • Stenting: used both for the treatment of aneurysms (covered with stents) and, if necessary, for the expansion of arteries or veins. During stenting, a small spring-like device is inserted into the blood vessel, which ensures the opening of the lumen of the blood vessels.

  • Balloon Angioplasty: Similar to the previous procedure, but in this case, a high-pressure balloon is used to recanalize the narrowed or blocked area.

  • Venectomy: This is a varicose vein excision operation, during which the degenerated veins are completely or partially removed.

  • Radiofrequency and laser ablation of varicose veins: This is a more modern and less invasive method of treating varicose veins. With ultrasound control, the catheter is inserted into the enlarged subcutaneous vein, and using thermal effects, the vein is closed, which no longer functions properly and causes the venous system of the lower extremities to malfunction.

  • Sclerotherapy: is a treatment for spider veins and small varicose veins. These procedures are performed in the doctor's office, do not require anesthesia and do not interfere with the patient's daily life, just like laser methods. To get a positive result, depending on the form of the disease, it is usually necessary to conduct several sessions.

  • Operation on arterial systems: depends on the characteristics of the damage to the arteries, such as length, location, dilatation, etc. The best solution for treating narrowing may be shunting or stenting/ballooning of the arteries through surgical intervention in the affected area. Some various methods and options will be developed with an individual approach. The vascular surgeon will provide you with information about the entire process and the expected outcome.

  • Carotid artery surgery: During this operation, atherosclerotic plaques are removed from the carotid artery, which is the cause of stroke, embolism and cerebral infarction, because it is one of the main arteries that supply blood to the brain.

Diseases and symptoms

Basic pathologies and diseases

Angiology and vascular surgery focuses on diseases and conditions such as:

  • aneurysms;

  • Thrombosis (both arterial and venous);

  • varicose veins and spider veins;

  • arteritis;

  • lymphedema;

  • diabetic foot;

  • mesenteric ischemia;

  • arteriovenous fistulas;

  • chronic arterial and venous insufficiency of the lower limbs;

  • compressions of trunk veins (May-Turner and Nutcracker syndrome);

  • carotid artery disease;

  • Vascular malformations.